Canada and the Korean War
After the end of World War II, Canada rapidly demobilised so when the Korean War (1950-1953) broke out, Canada needed several months to bring its military forces up to strength. Canadian troops fought as part of the 1st Commonwealth Division, and distinguished themselves at the Battle of Kapyong and in other land engagements.
The Tribal Class destroyer HMCS Haida, sister ship of the Athabaskan, and other ships of the Royal Canadian Navy were in active service in the Korean War. Haida had already survived World War II and had the distinction of being the RCN warship that destroyed the greatest number of enemy vessels during the war. However in 1965 she was destined for the scrapyard until she was rescued, she lives on as a Naval Museum and Canadian Historic Site at Hamilton Harbour.
Canada sent 26,791 troops to fight in Korea and suffered 1,558 casualties, including 516 dead.
Canada and the Vietnam War
Canada did not fight in the Vietnam War (1955-1975) and officially had the status of a "non-belligerent". Canadian Forces involvement was limited to a small contingent in 1973 to help enforce the Paris Peace Accords. The war nevertheless had a considerable impact on Canadians. In a counter-current to the movement of American draft-dodgers and deserters to Canada, about 30,000 Canadians volunteered to fight in southeast Asia. At one stage the Canadian national flag was seen flying amongst the flags flapping above the bunkers at the US Marine combat base at Khe Sanh. Among the volunteers were fifty Mohawks from the Kahnawake reserve near Montreal. 110 Canadians died in Vietnam, and seven remain listed as Missing in Action.
Following the UN authorized use of force against Iraq, the Canadian Forces deployed a CF-18 Hornet and Sikorsky CH-124 Sea King squadron with support personnel, as well as a field hospital to deal with casualties from the ground war. When the air war began, Canada's CF-18s were integrated into the coalition force and were tasked with providing air cover and attacking ground targets. This was the first time since the Korean War that the Canadian military had participated in offensive combat operations. The only CF-18 Hornet to record an official victory during the conflict was an aircraft involved in the beginning of the Battle of Bubiyan against the Iraqi Navy.
Yugoslavia: Operation Medak Pocket
Canada's forces were part of UNPROFOR, a UN peacekeeping force in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Yugoslav wars in the 1990s. In September 1993 Croatian forces had attacked the Serb enclave of Medak and driven out the population. The experienced Canadian 2nd Battalion Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry Battle Group were moved in as a barrier to prevent further "ethnic cleansing" The Croats were convinced that the joint French and Canadian UN force could be pushed aside and opened fire. According to Canadian and French military sources, UNPROFOR personnel and Croatian troops exchanged heavy fire. In Canada, at the time, though initially downplayed the battle was considered to be one of the most severe battles fought by the Canadian Forces since the Korean war, while Croatian sources describe it as merely a brief, accidental exchange of fire resulting in few casualties.
In reality artillery as well as small arms were employed and while the Croats claim 18 were killed and 27 wounded the Canadians state that 27 Croatian soldiers were killed. The Canadians suffered four wounded. It was not until 2002 that the action received proper acknowledgement and the 2nd Battalion Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry Battle Group were awarded the Commander-in-Chief Unit Commendation "for a heroic and professional mission during the Medak Pocket Operation".
Somali Civil War
During the Somali Civil War, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney committed Canada to UNOSOM I after United Nations Security Council Resolution 751. UNOSOM I was the first part of the UN's response effort to provide security and humanitarian relief in Somalia, while monitoring UN-brokered ceasefires.
Soldiers from the Canadian Grenadier Guards in the Kandahar Province of Afghanistan Canada joined a US-led coalition in the 2001 attack on Afghanistan. Canada sent special forces and ground troops to the conflict. In March 2002, a Canadian sniper set a world record for the longest-distance kill. Corporal Rob Furlong killed an enemy combatant from 2,430 meters (2,657 yd/1.509 miles). In November 2005, Canadian military participation shifted from ISAF in Kabul to Operation Archer, a part of Operation Enduring Freedom in and around Kandahar. On May 17, 2006, 26 year old Captain Nichola Goddard of the Royal Canadian Horse Artillery became Canada's first female soldier to be killed in action.
One of the most notable actions in September 2006 was the second Battle of Panjwaii in the Canadian-led Operation Medusa. Medusa had been a costly operation with 12 Canadians killed however 512 insurgents had been killed and 136 captured.
At the end of 2006, the Canadian soldier was selected by the Canadian Press as the Canadian Newsmaker of the Year because of the war in Afghanistan. On November 27, 2010, the 1st Battalion of the Royal 22e Régiment took over operations in Kandahar, marking the final rotation before Canada's withdrawal from Afghanistan. In July 2011, a small contingent of Canadian troops was transferred to the NATO Training Mission-Afghanistan to continue the training of the Afghan National Army and Afghan National Police, until 2014.
Canada and the Iraq War
HMCS Iroquois, one of four Canadian ships deployed to the Persian Gulf in relation to the Iraq War. The Iraq War (2003–2011) began with the invasion of Iraq on March 20, 2003. The government of Canada did not at any time formally declare war against Iraq. Nevertheless, the country's participation and relationship with the US was redefined at various points in that war. The Canadian Forces were involved in ship escort duties, and expanded their participation in Task Force 151 to free up American naval assets. About a hundred Canadian exchange officers, on exchange to American units, participated in the invasion of Iraq. There were numerous protests and counter-protests related to the conflict in Canada, and some United States Military personnel sought refuge in the country after deserting their posts to avoid deployment to Iraq.
Libyan civil war: Operation Mobile
On March 19, 2011, a multi-state coalition began a military intervention in Libya to implement United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 in response to the 2011 Libyan civil war. Canada's contribution included the deployment of a number of naval and air assets, which were grouped together as part of Operation Mobile. NATO assumed control of military actions on March 25, with RCAF Lieutenant General, Charles Bouchard in command. A no-fly zone was put into effect during the civil war to prevent government forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi from carrying out air attacks on anti-Gaddafi forces and civilians. The military intervention was enforced by NATO's Operation Unified Protector and included an arms embargo, a no-fly zone and a mandate to use all means necessary, short of foreign occupation, to protect Libyan civilians and civilian-populated areas. On October 28, 2011, Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced that the NATO military mission had ended successfully